Reference to homeland
Glorifying the past
“My children...”
“The people know that...”
“Threat to our language”
War metaphors
Difficult issue brushed aside with a joke
Opposing the elite
Sports metaphors
“The people want...”
Shifting attention to irrelevant matters
Emotional rhetoric in factual issues
Leader doing physical work
Shifting attention from actions to feelings
Blaming the “dissidents”
Us against them
Nostalgic notions of nationality
The people have shared values
“The people” without a definition
“Other [leaders] are alienated from the people”
Made-up numbers
Colloquialisms or dialect
Generalisation based on an individual case
The true people have a unified culture