Shifting attention from actions to feelings
The people have shared values
Opposing the elite
Impossible promises
“Cool” hand signs
Sports metaphors
Leader doing physical work
Nostalgic notions of nationality
Shifting attention to irrelevant matters
Blaming the “dissidents”
A certain group is not part of “the people”
Generalisation based on an individual case
Reference to homeland
“Other [leaders] are alienated from the people”
Glorifying the past
Mention of basic values
Colloquialisms or dialect
Oversimplifying a complex issue
“My children...”
Made-up sayings
Difficult issue brushed aside with a joke
Fearmongering
Emotional rhetoric in factual issues
“The people want...”
War metaphors