Impossible promises
“The people know that...”
Emotional rhetoric in factual issues
Nostalgic notions of nationality
Sports metaphors
“Cool” hand signs
Leader doing physical work
Mention of basic values
The true people have a unified culture
“My children...”
Made-up sayings
Us against them
The people have shared values
Reference to homeland
“The people want...”
Colloquialisms or dialect
Opposing the elite
“There are no options”
Shifting attention from actions to feelings
Glorifying the past
Made-up numbers
Shifting attention to irrelevant matters
Oversimplifying a complex issue
War metaphors
Blaming the “dissidents”